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Choosing a healthy lifestyle, including nutrition, exercise, and weight management, is the basis for controlling various types of diabetes. However, you may require medicine to obtain the desired glucose levels. Occasionally, a single medicine might be beneficial. In some cases, a combination of medicines is more effective.

This article will give you information on different medicine to treat diabetes.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic disease that impairs your body’s ability to convert food into energy.

Your body converts the majority of the food you consume into glucose and then releases it into your circulation. When your blood sugar level rises, it signals your pancreas to produce insulin. Insulin functions as a key to allowing glucose to enter cells for usage as energy.

With diabetes, the body is unable to produce or utilise insulin as efficiently as it should. When there is insufficient insulin or cells cease to react to insulin, excessive blood sugar remains in circulation. 

This can lead to major health issues such as heart disease, eyesight loss, and renal disease over time.

What causes Diabetes?

Each form of diabetes is connected with a specific set of causes.

1. Type 1 diabetes

Doctors are unsure of the specific cause of type 1 diabetes. The pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin are wrongly attacked and destroyed by the immune system.

Genes may have a role in certain individuals. It is also likely that a virus triggers an immune system response.

2.Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is caused by both hereditary and lifestyle factors. 

3. Gestational diabetes

Hormonal changes cause gestational diabetes during pregnancy. The placenta generates hormones that make the cells of a pregnant woman less susceptible to insulin’s effects. 

What are the Symptoms and Complications of Diabetes?

There are several symptoms and complications of diabetes.

Symptoms

Symptoms of diabetes are a result of higher blood sugar levels.

1. Common Symptoms

The most common diabetic symptoms include:

  • increased hunger
  • enhanced thirst
  • weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • unclear vision
  • extreme tiredness
  • non-healing wounds

2. Symptoms in Males

Men with diabetes may also have a lower sex drive, erectile dysfunction (ED), and muscular weakness.

3. Symptoms in Females

Diabetic women may experience urinary tract infections, yeast infections, and dry and itchy skin.

4. Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes may cause the following symptoms:

  • extreme hunger
  • enhanced thirst
  • unintentional weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • unclear vision
  • fatigue
  • mood swings

5. Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes can cause these symptoms:

  • increased hunger
  • enhanced thirst
  • frequent urination
  • unclear vision
  • tiredness
  • a slow-healing wound

It may also result in recurrent infections. This is because higher glucose levels hinder the body’s ability to recover.

Complications 

High blood sugar causes harm to the body’s organs and tissues. The higher your blood glucose level and the longer you have diabetes, the bigger your risk for complications.

Diabetes complications are:

  • Neuropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Cardiovascular illness
  • Heart attacks
  • Strokes
  • Retinopathy
  • Vision impairment
  • Hearing impairment
  • Foot damage like chronic infections and ulcers
  • Bacterial and fungal skin infections
  • Depression
  • Dementia

What Happens in Diabetes Diagnosis?

Everyone who exhibits signs of diabetes or is at risk for developing the condition should take tests. In the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, women are frequently screened for gestational diabetes.

Using these blood tests, doctors can diagnose diabetes and prediabetes:

  • The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test monitors blood sugar levels after an 8-hour fast.
  • The A1C test offers an overview of your blood sugar levels over the past three months.
  • In between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy, your doctor will check your blood sugar levels to confirm gestational diabetes.
  • One hour after consuming a sweet liquid, your blood sugar is measured during the glucose challenge test.
  • During the 3-hour glucose tolerance test, your blood sugar is measured after an overnight fast followed by the consumption of a sweet beverage.

The earlier diabetes is detected, the sooner treatment may be initiated.

What are the Treatment and Preventions Methods for Diabetes?

The treatment and preventions method for diabetic patients are as follows:

Treatment

Treatments for diabetes vary on the kind of diabetes. It also depends on how effectively their blood glucose level is regulated and their other health issues.

1. Type 1 diabetes:

Diabetes type 1 patients must take insulin every day. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas ceases insulin production.

2. Type 2 diabetes:

Medications, insulin, and lifestyle changes like weight loss, healthy food choices, and more physical activity may be used to manage this form of diabetes.

3. Prediabetes:

The target for those with prediabetes is to prevent them from developing diabetes. The focus of treatment is on modifiable risk factors, like weight loss through a healthy diet and exercise. Several diabetes preventive methods are the same as those advised for diabetic treatment.

4. Gestational diabetes: 

If you have this form of diabetes and your glucose level is not very high, your initial therapy may consist of dietary changes and frequent exercise.

Oral medicines and insulin treat diabetes in one of the following ways:

  • Stimulates insulin production and release by the pancreas.
  • Reduces the release of extra glucose by the liver.
  • Blocks the digestion of carbohydrates in the stomach or intestine. Hence increasing the sensitivity of your tissues to insulin.
  • Facilitates glucose excretion through increased urine.

Diabetes Medications

Medicines for diabetes treatment are as follows:

1. Sulfonylureas:

These medications reduce blood glucose by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin.

Examples include:

  • glimepiride (Amaryl®)
  • glipizide (Glucotrol®) 
  • glyburide (Micronase®,DiaBeta®)

2. Glinides:

These medications reduce blood glucose by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin.

Examples include:

  • repaglinide (Prandin®) 
  • nateglinide (Starlix®)

3. Biguanides:

These drugs reduce the quantity of glucose made by the liver. 

Example include:

  • Metformin (Glucophage®)

4. Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors:

These medications reduce blood glucose by delaying carbohydrate breakdown and decreasing glucose uptake in the small intestine.

Example include:

  • acarbose (Precose®)

5. Thiazolidinediones:

These medications enhance the action of insulin in the body by enabling more glucose to reach the muscles, fat, and liver.

Examples include:

  • pioglitazone (Actos®) 
  • rosiglitazone (Avandia®)

6.GLP-1 Analogs:

These medications boost insulin release, decrease glucose release from the liver after meals, and prolong stomach emptying.

Example includes:

  • exenatide (Byetta®)
  • liraglutide (Victoza®)
  • albiglutide (Tanzeum®) 
  • semaglutide (Rybelsus®) 
  • dulaglutide (Trulicity®)

7.DPP-4 inhibitors: 

These medications stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin after meals. In addition, they reduce the quantity of glucose produced by the liver.

Example includes:

  • alogliptin (Nesina®)
  • sitagliptin (Januvia®)
  • saxagliptin (Onglyza®) 
  • linagliptin (Tradjenta®)

8. Dopamine Agonist:

This drug reduces the quantity of glucose the liver secretes.

Example include:

  • bromocriptine (Cyclocet®)

9. Bile Acid Sequestrants:

These medications reduce cholesterol and glucose levels.

Examples include:

  • colestipol (Colestid®)
  • cholestyramine (Questran®) 
  • colesevelam (Welchol®)

Getting all diabetes medication online with an instant delivery option has become more convenient. 

Prevention

Type 1 diabetes is not preventable since it is driven by an immune system dysfunction. Some causes of type 2 diabetes like genetics and age are beyond your control.

Nonetheless, many more diabetes risk factors are manageable. The majority of diabetes preventive methods include dietary and physical activity modifications.

Here are a few things you can take to avoid type 2 diabetes if you’ve been diagnosed with prediabetes:

  • Daily physical training, such as walking or cycling, is advisable.
  • Eliminate saturated and trans fats from your diet, and also processed carbs.
  • Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables and healthy grains.
  • Reduce your portion sizes.
  • If you are overweight or obese, try to shed your excess body weight.
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By admin